Preheat oven to 425°F. Line a small roasting pan with foil and set aside.
Cut the 1/2 sweet potato into 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick 'cards'. Stack the cards and cut lengthwise into 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick matchsticks. Rotate the matchsticks 90° and cut across them, yielding 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch thick cubes. Place them on the foil lined roasting pan and toss with 2 tablespoons of olive oil, 1/2 teaspoon of kosher salt, and the freshly ground black pepper. Roast for 8-15 minutes (depending on size) or until they are tender and lightly caramelized in places. Let cool on the pan while you proceed with the rest of the recipe.
Add the extra virgin olive oil to a small frying pan over medium heat. When it is warm, add the garlic along with the remaining 1/2 teaspoon of kosher salt, stirring and cooking just until fragrant. Stir in the black beans, 2 teaspoons of chili powder, orange juice, and all but 1 teaspoon of the lime juice, raising the heat to medium high until the juice starts to boil. Mix in the sweet potato bits and simmer until almost all of the juice has been absorbed by the beans. Remove from the heat and stir all but 1 tablespoon of the cilantro and all but a 1/2 teaspoon of the orange zest.
In a small bowl, use a fork to combine the Greek yogurt, reserved chili powder, and reserved lime juice until even.
Fill the puff pastry cups with the black bean mixture, top with a dollop of the Greek yogurt sauce, lay one shrimp on top of each cup and garnish with the reserved cilantro and orange zest. Serve immediately.