Heat the oil in a stock pot over high heat. Sprinkle the salt and pepper over the beef cubes and add them to the pot. Sear the beef cubes on all sides, until the beef is browned all over. Add the garlic to the pot and stir until the garlic is fragrant and lightly toasted, about 1 minute.
Add the broth, water, cinnamon sticks, star anise, and ginger to the pot and bring to a boil, scraping the bottom of the pan to release any flavourful bits that stuck to it.
When the stock reaches a boil, add a lid to the pan, drop the heat to low, and simmer until the meat is tender, about 1 to 1 1/2 hours. Add the soy sauce to the broth.
To assemble the soup for serving, divide the noodles between 6 deep soup bowls. Divide the cabbage, green onions, and hard-boiled egg halves between the bowls, then top with red chili slices. Ladle the broth and beef over the noodles, garnish with fried garlic and cilantro and serve with a lime wedge to squeeze over it just before serving.